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Module A - Diploma part I
When should I reference?

It is normal to use a reference or citation when you are:

  • Using a direct quotation (the writer’s actual words) from a source of information. In this case the page reference should be given
  • Paraphrasing (put into your own words), someone else’s ideas that you have read or heard
  • Using statistics or other pieces of information, which are drawn from a recognisable source.


When quoting a short extract it is normal to enclose it in inverted commas and put the citation immediately after it e.g., It is widely acknowledged that "the development of study skills is an essential part of learning at University" (Bloggs, 2006:101), when using a longer quote put it into an indented paragraph e.g.

Records of achievement can vary from simple lists of qualifications to detailed reflective journals. Your university will give you a formal transcript that lists your academic achievements, such as courses, modules or units passed. (Cottrell, 2003:42)

If you are referring to the ideas [paraphrasing] during your work then use the citation to indicate where these ideas are from (and then use the full reference at the end of the essay). So, Cormack (1994) describes how students can acquire literature searching skills.

For more information download the full faculty referencing guidelines



Name(s), Initial (Date of Publication) Title [and edition if applicable]. Place of Publication: Publisher

e.g. Humphries, C. (2003) Essentials: Really Simple English Grammar. Slough: Foulsham.
or Smith, A and Jones, T (2005) A Brief History of Comedy (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge


(Humpries, 2003)

Chapter in an edited or collected version

As above for the chapter and then the word 'in' followed by the same format for the book editor using the title (ed.) after their name.

e.g. Jeffs, T. (1997) Changing their Ways: Youth Work and Underclass Theory. In MacDonald, R (ed.) (1997) Settlements, Social Change and Community Action: Good Neighbours. London: Jessica and Kingsley, pp 231-239


(Jeffs, 1997)

Journal Articles (printed)

Name(s), Initial (Date of Publication) Title [and subtitle if applicable], Vol Number of Journal, Page numbers

e.g. Hopkins, P (2009) A survey of teachers use of technology, Journal of Information Systems, 21(3), pp43-48


(Hopkins, 2009)

Journal Articles (electronic)

As above but including the web address you accessed the journal at and the date of access

e.g. Harnack, A. and Kleppinger, E. (1997) Creating Models for Electronic Citations, Ariadne [online], 23(7). Available: [Accessed 15 August 2006]


(Harnack and Kelppinger, 1997)

Articles on web pages (including AV media)


Author (if known) and date of publication, title of webpage/website, place of publication and full webpage reference and date of access

e.g. Shields, G. and Walton, G. (2001) Cite Them Right: How to Organise Bibliographical References, [online], Newcastle: University of Northumbria at Newcastle. Available: [Accessed 25 February 2005]


(Shields and Walton, Accessed 25/2/05)

Conference Paper


Clarke A, Crame JA. 2003. Importance of historical processes in global patterns of diversity. In: Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, editors. Macroecology: concepts and consequences. Proceedings of the 43rd annual symposium of the British Ecological Society; 2002 Apr 17-19; Birmingham. Malden (MA): Blackwell. p. 130-152.


(Clarke and Crame 2003)

Broadcast (TV or radio)

Title (and subtitle if applicable), number of broadcast (if applicable), title, channel, date of transmission

e.g. Yes, Prime Minister: Series 1: Episode 1: The Ministerial Broadcast 1986, [television broadcast], BBC2, 16 January 1986.
or PM, [radio broadcast], Radio 4, 27 January 2010.

Film or DVD or Video


Title (and subtitle if applicable), year of production, director, place of production and producer

e.g. Macbeth (1948) [film], directed by Orson Welles, Los Angeles: Republic Pictures.


(Welles, 1948)

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